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GNU Emacs Manual

Emacs is the extensible, customizable, self-documenting real-time display editor. This Info file describes how to edit with Emacs and some of how to customize it; it corresponds to GNU Emacs version 20.7. For information on extending Emacs, see section `' in The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual.

Distribution  How to get the latest Emacs distribution.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE  The GNU General Public License gives you permission to redistribute GNU Emacs on certain terms; it also explains that there is no warranty.
Introduction  An introduction to Emacs concepts.
Glossary  The glossary.
B. Emacs 19 Antinews  Information about Emacs version 19.
C. Emacs and MS-DOS  Using Emacs on MS-DOS (otherwise known as "MS-DOG").
The GNU Manifesto  What's GNU? Gnu's Not Unix!
D. Acknowledgments  Major contributors to GNU Emacs.

Indexes (nodes containing large menus)
Key (Character) Index  An item for each standard Emacs key sequence.
Command and Function Index  An item for each command name.
Variable Index  An item for each documented variable.
Concept Index  An item for each concept.

Important General Concepts
1. The Organization of the Screen  How to interpret what you see on the screen.
1.5 Kinds of User Input  Kinds of input events (characters, buttons, function keys).
1.6 Keys  Key sequences: what you type to request one editing action.
1.7 Keys and Commands  Named functions run by key sequences to do editing.
1.8 Character Set for Text  Character set for text (the contents of buffers and strings).
2. Entering and Exiting Emacs  Starting Emacs from the shell.
2.1 Exiting Emacs  Stopping or killing Emacs.
A. Command Line Arguments  Hairy startup options.

Fundamental Editing Commands
3. Basic Editing Commands  The most basic editing commands.
4. The Minibuffer  Entering arguments that are prompted for.
5. Running Commands by Name  Invoking commands by their names.
6. Help  Commands for asking Emacs about its commands.

Important Text-Changing Commands
7. The Mark and the Region  The mark: how to delimit a "region" of text.
7.7 Deletion and Killing  Killing text.
7.8 Yanking  Recovering killed text. Moving text.
7.9 Accumulating Text  Other ways of copying text.
7.10 Rectangles  Operating on the text inside a rectangle on the screen.
8. Registers  Saving a text string or a location in the buffer.
9. Controlling the Display  Controlling what text is displayed.
10. Searching and Replacement  Finding or replacing occurrences of a string.
11. Commands for Fixing Typos  Commands especially useful for fixing typos.

Major Structures of Emacs
12. File Handling  All about handling files.
13. Using Multiple Buffers  Multiple buffers; editing several files at once.
14. Multiple Windows  Viewing two pieces of text at once.
15. Frames and X Windows  Running the same Emacs session in multiple X windows.
16. International Character Set Support  Using non-ASCII character sets (the MULE features).

Advanced Features
17. Major Modes  Text mode vs. Lisp mode vs. C mode ...
18. Indentation  Editing the white space at the beginnings of lines.
19. Commands for Human Languages  Commands and modes for editing English.
20. Editing Programs  Commands and modes for editing programs.
21. Compiling and Testing Programs  Compiling, running and debugging programs.
22. Abbrevs  How to define text abbreviations to reduce the number of characters you must type.
23. Editing Pictures  Editing pictures made up of characters using the quarter-plane screen model.
24. Sending Mail  Sending mail in Emacs.
25. Reading Mail with Rmail  Reading mail in Emacs.
26. Dired, the Directory Editor  You can "edit" a directory to manage files in it.
27. The Calendar and the Diary  The calendar and diary facilities.
27.13 Gnus  How to read netnews with Emacs.
27.14 Running Shell Commands from Emacs  Executing shell commands from Emacs.
27.15 Using Emacs as a Server  Using Emacs as an editing server for mail, etc.
27.16 Hardcopy Output  Printing buffers or regions.
27.17 Postscript Hardcopy  Printing buffers or regions as Postscript.
27.18 Variables for Postscript Hardcopy  Customizing the Postscript printing commands.
27.19 Sorting Text  Sorting lines, paragraphs or pages within Emacs.
27.20 Narrowing  Restricting display and editing to a portion of the buffer.
27.21 Two-Column Editing  Splitting apart columns to edit them in side-by-side windows.
27.22 Editing Binary Files  Using Hexl mode to edit binary files.
27.23 Saving Emacs Sessions  Saving Emacs state from one session to the next.
27.24 Recursive Editing Levels  A command can allow you to do editing
  "within the command".  This is called a
  `recursive editing level'.
27.25 Emulation  Emulating some other editors with Emacs.
27.26 Dissociated Press  Dissociating text for fun.
27.27 Other Amusements  Various games and hacks.
28. Customization  Modifying the behavior of Emacs.

Recovery from Problems
28.8 Quitting and Aborting  Quitting and aborting.
28.9 Dealing with Emacs Trouble  What to do if Emacs is hung or malfunctioning.
28.10 Reporting Bugs  How and when to report a bug.
28.11 Contributing to Emacs Development  How to contribute improvements to Emacs.
28.12 How To Get Help with GNU Emacs  How to get help for your own Emacs needs.

Here are some other nodes which are really inferiors of the ones
already listed, mentioned here so you can get to them in one step:

 -- The Detailed Node Listing ---

The Organization of the Screen

1.1 Point  The place in the text where editing commands operate.
1.2 The Echo Area  Short messages appear at the bottom of the screen.
1.3 The Mode Line  Interpreting the mode line.
1.4 The Menu Bar  How to use the menu bar.

Basic Editing Commands

3.1 Inserting Text  Inserting text by simply typing it.
3.2 Changing the Location of Point  How to move the cursor to the place where you want to change something.
3.3 Erasing Text  Deleting and killing text.
3.4 Undoing Changes  Undoing recent changes in the text.
3.5 Files  Visiting, creating, and saving files.
3.6 Help  Asking what a character does.
3.7 Blank Lines  Commands to make or delete blank lines.
3.8 Continuation Lines  Lines too wide for the screen.
3.9 Cursor Position Information  What page, line, row, or column is point on?
3.10 Numeric Arguments  Numeric arguments for repeating a command.

The Minibuffer

4.1 Minibuffers for File Names  Entering file names with the minibuffer.
4.2 Editing in the Minibuffer  How to edit in the minibuffer.
4.3 Completion  An abbreviation facility for minibuffer input.
4.4 Minibuffer History  Reusing recent minibuffer arguments.
4.5 Repeating Minibuffer Commands  Re-executing commands that used the minibuffer.


6.1 Help Summary  Brief list of all Help commands.
6.2 Documentation for a Key  Asking what a key does in Emacs.
6.3 Help by Command or Variable Name  Asking about a command, variable or function name.
6.4 Apropos  Asking what pertains to a given topic.
6.5 Keyword Search for Lisp Libraries  Finding Lisp libraries by keywords (topics).
6.6 Help for International Language Support  Help relating to international language support.
6.8 Other Help Commands  Other help commands.

The Mark and the Region

7.1 Setting the Mark  Commands to set the mark.
7.2 Transient Mark Mode  How to make Emacs highlight the region-- when there is one.
7.3 Operating on the Region  Summary of ways to operate on contents of the region.
7.4 Commands to Mark Textual Objects  Commands to put region around textual units.
7.5 The Mark Ring  Previous mark positions saved so you can go back there.
7.6 The Global Mark Ring  Previous mark positions in various buffers.

Deletion and Killing

7.7.1 Deletion  Commands for deleting small amounts of text and blank areas.
7.7.2 Killing by Lines  How to kill entire lines of text at one time.
7.7.3 Other Kill Commands  Commands to kill large regions of text and syntactic units such as words and sentences.


7.8.1 The Kill Ring  Where killed text is stored. Basic yanking.
7.8.2 Appending Kills  Several kills in a row all yank together.
7.8.3 Yanking Earlier Kills  Yanking something killed some time ago.


8.1 Saving Positions in Registers  Saving positions in registers.
8.2 Saving Text in Registers  Saving text in registers.
8.3 Saving Rectangles in Registers  Saving rectangles in registers.
8.4 Saving Window Configurations in Registers  Saving window configurations in registers.
8.6 Keeping File Names in Registers  File names in registers.
8.7 Bookmarks  Bookmarks are like registers, but persistent.

Controlling the Display

9.1 Scrolling  Moving text up and down in a window.
9.2 Horizontal Scrolling  Moving text left and right in a window.
9.3 Follow Mode  Follow mode lets two windows scroll as one.
9.4 Selective Display  Hiding lines with lots of indentation.
9.5 Optional Mode Line Features  Optional mode line display features.
9.6 How Text Is Displayed  How text is normally displayed.
9.7 Variables Controlling Display  Information on variables for customizing display.

Searching and Replacement

10.1 Incremental Search  Search happens as you type the string.
10.2 Nonincremental Search  Specify entire string and then search.
10.3 Word Search  Search for sequence of words.
10.4 Regular Expression Search  Search for match for a regexp.
10.5 Syntax of Regular Expressions  Syntax of regular expressions.
10.6 Searching and Case  To ignore case while searching, or not.
10.7 Replacement Commands  Search, and replace some or all matches.
10.8 Other Search-and-Loop Commands  Operating on all matches for some regexp.

Replacement Commands

10.7.1 Unconditional Replacement  Replacing all matches for a string.
10.7.2 Regexp Replacement  Replacing all matches for a regexp.
10.7.3 Replace Commands and Case  How replacements preserve case of letters.
10.7.4 Query Replace  How to use querying.

Commands for Fixing Typos

11.1 Killing Your Mistakes  Commands to kill a batch of recently entered text.
11.2 Transposing Text  Exchanging two characters, words, lines, lists...
11.3 Case Conversion  Correcting case of last word entered.
11.4 Checking and Correcting Spelling  Apply spelling checker to a word or a whole buffer.

File Handling

12.1 File Names  How to type and edit file-name arguments.
12.2 Visiting Files  Visiting a file prepares Emacs to edit the file.
12.3 Saving Files  Saving makes your changes permanent.
12.4 Reverting a Buffer  Reverting cancels all the changes not saved.
12.5 Auto-Saving: Protection Against Disasters  Auto Save periodically protects against loss of data.
12.6 File Name Aliases  Handling multiple names for one file.
12.7 Version Control  Version control systems (RCS, CVS and SCCS).
12.8 File Directories  Creating, deleting, and listing file directories.
12.9 Comparing Files  Finding where two files differ.
12.10 Miscellaneous File Operations  Other things you can do on files.
12.11 Accessing Compressed Files  Accessing compressed files.
12.12 Remote Files  Accessing files on other sites.
12.13 Quoted File Names  Quoting special characters in file names.

Saving Files

12.3.1 Backup Files  How Emacs saves the old version of your file.
12.3.2 Protection against Simultaneous Editing  How Emacs protects against simultaneous editing of one file by two users.

Version Control

12.7.1 Introduction to Version Control  How version control works in general.
12.7.2 Version Control and the Mode Line  How the mode line shows version control status.
12.7.3 Basic Editing under Version Control  How to edit a file under version control.
12.7.4 Examining And Comparing Old Versions  Examining and comparing old versions.
12.7.5 The Secondary Commands of VC  The commands used a little less frequently.
12.7.6 Multiple Branches of a File  Multiple lines of development.
12.7.7 Snapshots  Sets of file versions treated as a unit.
12.7.8 Miscellaneous Commands and Features of VC  Various other commands and features of VC.
12.7.9 Customizing VC  Variables that change VC's behavior.

Using Multiple Buffers

13.1 Creating and Selecting Buffers  Creating a new buffer or reselecting an old one.
13.2 Listing Existing Buffers  Getting a list of buffers that exist.
13.3 Miscellaneous Buffer Operations  Renaming; changing read-onlyness; copying text.
13.4 Killing Buffers  Killing buffers you no longer need.
13.5 Operating on Several Buffers  How to go through the list of all buffers and operate variously on several of them.
13.6 Indirect Buffers  An indirect buffer shares the text of another buffer.

Multiple Windows

14.1 Concepts of Emacs Windows  Introduction to Emacs windows.
14.2 Splitting Windows  New windows are made by splitting existing windows.
14.3 Using Other Windows  Moving to another window or doing something to it.
14.4 Displaying in Another Window  Finding a file or buffer in another window.
14.5 Forcing Display in the Same Window  Forcing certain buffers to appear in the selected window rather than in another window.
14.6 Deleting and Rearranging Windows  Deleting windows and changing their sizes.

Frames and X Windows

15.1 Mouse Commands for Editing  Moving, cutting, and pasting, with the mouse.
15.2 Secondary Selection  Cutting without altering point and mark.
15.3 Following References with the Mouse  Using the mouse to select an item from a list.
15.4 Mouse Clicks for Menus  Mouse clicks that bring up menus.
15.5 Mode Line Mouse Commands  Mouse clicks on the mode line.
15.6 Creating Frames  Creating additional Emacs frames with various contents.
15.8 Multiple Displays  How one Emacs job can talk to several displays.
15.9 Special Buffer Frames  You can make certain buffers have their own frames.
15.10 Setting Frame Parameters  Changing the colors and other modes of frames.
15.11 Scroll Bars  How to enable and disable scroll bars; how to use them.
15.12 Menu Bars  Enabling and disabling the menu bar.
15.13 Using Multiple Typefaces  How to change the display style using faces.
15.14 Font Lock mode  Minor mode for syntactic highlighting using faces.
15.15 Font Lock Support Modes  Font Lock support modes make Font Lock faster.
15.17 Miscellaneous X Window Features  Iconifying and deleting frames. Region highlighting.
15.18 Non-Window Terminals  Multiple frames on terminals that show only one.

Font Lock Support Modes

15.15.1 Fast Lock Mode  Saving font information in files.
15.15.2 Lazy Lock Mode  Fontifying only text that is actually displayed.
15.15.3 Fast Lock or Lazy Lock?  Which support mode is best for you?

International Character Set Support

16.1 Introduction to International Character Sets  Basic concepts of multibyte characters.
16.2 Enabling Multibyte Characters  Controlling whether to use multibyte characters.
16.3 Language Environments  Setting things up for the language you use.
16.4 Input Methods  Entering text characters not on your keyboard.
16.5 Selecting an Input Method  Specifying your choice of input methods.
16.7 Coding Systems  Character set conversion when you read and write files, and so on.
16.8 Recognizing Coding Systems  How Emacs figures out which conversion to use.
16.9 Specifying a Coding System  Various ways to choose which conversion to use.
16.10 Fontsets  Fontsets are collections of fonts that cover the whole spectrum of characters.
16.11 Defining fontsets  Defining a new fontset.
16.12 Single-byte European Character Support  You can pick one European character set to use without multibyte characters.

Major Modes

17.1 How Major Modes are Chosen  How major modes are specified or chosen.


18.1 Indentation Commands and Techniques  Various commands and techniques for indentation.
18.2 Tab Stops  You can set arbitrary "tab stops" and then indent to the next tab stop when you want to.
18.3 Tabs vs. Spaces  You can request indentation using just spaces.

Commands for Human Languages

19.1 Words  Moving over and killing words.
19.2 Sentences  Moving over and killing sentences.
19.3 Paragraphs  Moving over paragraphs.
19.4 Pages  Moving over pages.
19.5 Filling Text  Filling or justifying text.
19.6 Case Conversion Commands  Changing the case of text.
19.7 Text Mode  The major modes for editing text files.
19.8 Outline Mode  Editing outlines.
19.9 TeX Mode  Editing input to the formatter TeX.
19.10 Nroff Mode  Editing input to the formatter nroff.
19.11 Editing Formatted Text  Editing formatted text directly in WYSIWYG fashion.

Filling Text

19.5.1 Auto Fill Mode  Auto Fill mode breaks long lines automatically.
19.5.2 Explicit Fill Commands  Commands to refill paragraphs and center lines.
19.5.3 The Fill Prefix  Filling paragraphs that are indented or in a comment, etc.
19.5.4 Adaptive Filling  How Emacs can determine the fill prefix automatically.

Editing Programs

20.1 Major Modes for Programming Languages  Major modes for editing programs.
20.2 Lists and Sexps  Expressions with balanced parentheses.
20.3 List And Sexp Commands  The commands for working with list and sexps.
20.4 Defuns  Each program is made up of separate functions. There are editing commands to operate on them.
20.5 Indentation for Programs  Adjusting indentation to show the nesting.
20.6 Automatic Display Of Matching Parentheses  Insertion of a close-delimiter flashes matching open.
20.7 Manipulating Comments  Inserting, killing, and aligning comments.
20.8 Editing Without Unbalanced Parentheses  Inserting two matching parentheses at once, etc.
20.9 Completion for Symbol Names  Completion on symbol names of your program or language.
20.11 Documentation Commands  Getting documentation of functions you plan to call.
20.12 Change Logs  Maintaining a change history for your program.
20.13 Tags Tables  Go directly to any function in your program in one command. Tags remembers which file it is in.
20.14 Merging Files with Emerge  A convenient way of merging two versions of a program.
20.15 C and Related Modes  Special commands of C, C++, Objective-C and Java modes.
20.16 Fortran Mode  Fortran mode and its special features.
20.17 Asm Mode  Asm mode and its special features.

Indentation for Programs

20.5.1 Basic Program Indentation Commands  Indenting a single line.
20.5.2 Indenting Several Lines  Commands to reindent many lines at once.
20.5.3 Customizing Lisp Indentation  Specifying how each Lisp function should be indented.
20.5.4 Commands for C Indentation  Choosing an indentation style for C code.

Tags Tables

20.13.1 Source File Tag Syntax  Tag syntax for various types of code and text files.
20.13.2 Creating Tags Tables  Creating a tags table with etags.
20.13.3 Selecting a Tags Table  How to visit a tags table.
20.13.4 Finding a Tag  Commands to find the definition of a specific tag.
20.13.5 Searching and Replacing with Tags Tables  Using a tags table for searching and replacing.
20.13.6 Tags Table Inquiries  Listing and finding tags defined in a file.

Merging Files with Emerge

20.14.1 Overview of Emerge  How to start Emerge. Basic concepts.
20.14.2 Submodes of Emerge  Fast mode vs. Edit mode. Skip Prefers mode and Auto Advance mode.
20.14.3 State of a Difference  You do the merge by specifying state A or B for each difference.
20.14.4 Merge Commands  Commands for selecting a difference, changing states of differences, etc.
20.14.5 Exiting Emerge  What to do when you've finished the merge.
20.14.6 Combining the Two Versions  How to keep both alternatives for a difference.
20.14.7 Fine Points of Emerge  Misc.

Compiling and Testing Programs

21.1 Running Compilations under Emacs  Compiling programs in languages other than Lisp (C, Pascal, etc.).
21.3 Compilation Mode  The mode for visiting compiler errors.
21.4 Subshells for Compilation  Customizing your shell properly for use in the compilation buffer.
21.5 Running Debuggers Under Emacs  Running symbolic debuggers for non-Lisp programs.
21.6 Executing Lisp Expressions  Various modes for editing Lisp programs, with different facilities for running the Lisp programs.
21.7 Libraries of Lisp Code for Emacs  Creating Lisp programs to run in Emacs.
21.9 Lisp Interaction Buffers  Executing Lisp in an Emacs buffer.
21.8 Evaluating Emacs-Lisp Expressions  Executing a single Lisp expression in Emacs.
21.10 Running an External Lisp  Communicating through Emacs with a separate Lisp.

Running Debuggers Under Emacs

21.5.1 Starting GUD  How to start a debugger subprocess.
21.5.2 Debugger Operation  Connection between the debugger and source buffers.
21.5.3 Commands of GUD  Key bindings for common commands.
21.5.4 GUD Customization  Defining your own commands for GUD.


22.1 Abbrev Concepts  Fundamentals of defined abbrevs.
22.2 Defining Abbrevs  Defining an abbrev, so it will expand when typed.
22.3 Controlling Abbrev Expansion  Controlling expansion: prefixes, canceling expansion.
22.4 Examining and Editing Abbrevs  Viewing or editing the entire list of defined abbrevs.
22.5 Saving Abbrevs  Saving the entire list of abbrevs for another session.
22.6 Dynamic Abbrev Expansion  Abbreviations for words already in the buffer.

Editing Pictures

23.1 Basic Editing in Picture Mode  Basic concepts and simple commands of Picture Mode.
23.2 Controlling Motion after Insert  Controlling direction of cursor motion after "self-inserting" characters.
23.3 Picture Mode Tabs  Various features for tab stops and indentation.
23.4 Picture Mode Rectangle Commands  Clearing and superimposing rectangles.

Sending Mail

24.1 The Format of the Mail Buffer  Format of the mail being composed.
24.2 Mail Header Fields  Details of permitted mail header fields.
24.3 Mail Aliases  Abbreviating and grouping mail addresses.
24.4 Mail Mode  Special commands for editing mail being composed.
24.5 Distracting the NSA  How to distract the NSA's attention.
24.6 Mail-Composition Methods  Using alternative mail-composition methods.

Reading Mail with Rmail

25.1 Basic Concepts of Rmail  Basic concepts of Rmail, and simple use.
25.2 Scrolling Within a Message  Scrolling through a message.
25.3 Moving Among Messages  Moving to another message.
25.4 Deleting Messages  Deleting and expunging messages.
25.5 Rmail Files and Inboxes  How mail gets into the Rmail file.
25.6 Multiple Rmail Files  Using multiple Rmail files.
25.7 Copying Messages Out to Files  Copying message out to files.
25.8 Labels  Classifying messages by labeling them.
25.9 Rmail Attributes  Certain standard labels, called attributes.
25.10 Sending Replies  Sending replies to messages you are viewing.
25.11 Summaries  Summaries show brief info on many messages.
25.12 Sorting the Rmail File  Sorting messages in Rmail.
25.13 Display of Messages  How Rmail displays a message; customization.
25.14 Editing Within a Message  Editing message text and headers in Rmail.
25.15 Digest Messages  Extracting the messages from a digest message.
25.16 Converting an Rmail File to Inbox Format  Converting an Rmail file to mailbox format.
25.17 Reading Rot13 Messages  Reading messages encoded in the rot13 code.
25.18 movemail and POP  More details of fetching new mail.

Dired, the Directory Editor

26.1 Entering Dired  How to invoke Dired.
26.2 Commands in the Dired Buffer  Commands in the Dired buffer.
26.3 Deleting Files with Dired  Deleting files with Dired.
26.4 Flagging Many Files at Once  Flagging files based on their names.
26.5 Visiting Files in Dired  Other file operations through Dired.
26.6 Dired Marks vs. Flags  Flagging for deletion vs marking.
26.7 Operating on Files  How to copy, rename, print, compress, etc. either one file or several files.
26.8 Shell Commands in Dired  Running a shell command on the marked files.
26.9 Transforming File Names in Dired  Using patterns to rename multiple files.
26.10 File Comparison with Dired  Running `diff' by way of Dired.
26.11 Subdirectories in Dired  Adding subdirectories to the Dired buffer.
26.12 Moving Over Subdirectories  Moving across subdirectories, and up and down.
26.13 Hiding Subdirectories  Making subdirectories visible or invisible.
26.14 Updating the Dired Buffer  Discarding lines for files of no interest.
26.15 Dired and find  Using `find' to choose the files for Dired.

The Calendar and the Diary

27.1 Movement in the Calendar  Moving through the calendar; selecting a date.
27.2 Scrolling in the Calendar  Bringing earlier or later months onto the screen.
27.3 Counting Days  How many days are there between two dates?
27.4 Miscellaneous Calendar Commands  Exiting or recomputing the calendar.
27.5 LaTeX Calendar  Print a calendar using LaTeX.
27.6 Holidays  Displaying dates of holidays.
27.7 Times of Sunrise and Sunset  Displaying local times of sunrise and sunset.
27.8 Phases of the Moon  Displaying phases of the moon.
27.9 Conversion To and From Other Calendars  Converting dates to other calendar systems.
27.10 The Diary  Displaying events from your diary.
27.11 Appointments  Reminders when it's time to do something.
27.12 Daylight Savings Time  How to specify when daylight savings time is active.

Movement in the Calendar

27.1.1 Motion by Standard Lengths of Time  Moving by days, weeks, months, and years.
27.1.2 Beginning or End of Week, Month or Year  Moving to start/end of weeks, months, and years.
27.1.3 Specified Dates  Moving to the current date or another specific date.

Conversion To and From Other Calendars

27.9.1 Supported Calendar Systems  The calendars Emacs understands
     (aside from Gregorian).
27.9.2 Converting To Other Calendars  Converting the selected date to various calendars.
27.9.3 Converting From Other Calendars  Moving to a date specified in another calendar.
27.9.4 Converting from the Mayan Calendar  Moving to a date specified in a Mayan calendar.

The Diary

27.10.1 Commands Displaying Diary Entries  Viewing diary entries and associated calendar dates.
27.10.2 The Diary File  Entering events in your diary.
27.10.3 Date Formats  Various ways you can specify dates.
27.10.4 Commands to Add to the Diary  Commands to create diary entries.
27.10.5 Special Diary Entries  Anniversaries, blocks of dates, cyclic entries, etc.


27.13.1 Gnus Buffers  The group, summary, and article buffers.
27.13.2 When Gnus Starts Up  What you should know about starting Gnus.
27.13.3 Summary of Gnus Commands  A short description of the basic Gnus commands.

Running Shell Commands from Emacs

27.14.1 Single Shell Commands  How to run one shell command and return.
27.14.2 Interactive Inferior Shell  Permanent shell taking input via Emacs.
27.14.3 Shell Mode  Special Emacs commands used with permanent shell.
27.14.4 Shell Command History  Repeating previous commands in a shell buffer.
27.14.5 Shell Mode Options  Options for customizing Shell mode.
27.14.6 Remote Host Shell  Connecting to another computer.


28.1 Minor Modes  Each minor mode is one feature you can turn on independently of any others.
28.2 Variables  Many Emacs commands examine Emacs variables to decide what to do; by setting variables, you can control their functioning.
28.3 Keyboard Macros  A keyboard macro records a sequence of keystrokes to be replayed with a single command.
28.4 Customizing Key Bindings  The keymaps say what command each key runs. By changing them, you can "redefine keys".
28.5 Keyboard Translations  If your keyboard passes an undesired code for a key, you can tell Emacs to substitute another code.
28.6 The Syntax Table  The syntax table controls how words and expressions are parsed.
28.7 The Init File, `~/.emacs'  How to write common customizations in the
  `.emacs' file. 


28.2.1 Examining and Setting Variables  Examining or setting one variable's value.
28.2.2 Easy Customization Interface  Convenient and easy customization of variables.
28.2.3 Hooks  Hook variables let you specify programs for parts of Emacs to run on particular occasions.
28.2.4 Local Variables  Per-buffer values of variables.
28.2.5 Local Variables in Files  How files can specify variable values.

Keyboard Macros

28.3.1 Basic Use  Defining and running keyboard macros.
28.3.2 Naming and Saving Keyboard Macros  Giving keyboard macros names; saving them in files.
28.3.3 Executing Macros with Variations  Making keyboard macros do different things each time.

Customizing Key Bindings

28.4.1 Keymaps  Generalities. The global keymap.
28.4.2 Prefix Keymaps  Keymaps for prefix keys.
28.4.3 Local Keymaps  Major and minor modes have their own keymaps.
28.4.4 Minibuffer Keymaps  The minibuffer uses its own local keymaps.
28.4.5 Changing Key Bindings Interactively  How to redefine one key's meaning conveniently.
28.4.6 Rebinding Keys in Your Init File  Rebinding keys with your init file, `.emacs'.
28.4.7 Rebinding Function Keys  Rebinding terminal function keys.
28.4.8 Named ASCII Control Characters  Distinguishing TAB from C-i, and so on.
28.4.10 Rebinding Mouse Buttons  Rebinding mouse buttons in Emacs.
28.4.11 Disabling Commands  Disabling a command means confirmation is required before it can be executed. This is done to protect beginners from surprises.

The Init File, `~/.emacs'

28.7.1 Init File Syntax  Syntax of constants in Emacs Lisp.
28.7.2 Init File Examples  How to do some things with an init file.
28.7.3 Terminal-specific Initialization  Each terminal type can have an init file.
28.7.4 How Emacs Finds Your Init File  How Emacs finds the init file.

Dealing with Emacs Trouble

28.9.1 If DEL Fails to Delete  What to do if DEL doesn't delete.
28.9.2 Recursive Editing Levels  `[...]' in mode line around the parentheses.
28.9.3 Garbage on the Screen  Garbage on the screen.
28.9.4 Garbage in the Text  Garbage in the text.
28.9.5 Spontaneous Entry to Incremental Search  Spontaneous entry to incremental search.
28.9.6 Running out of Memory  How to cope when you run out of memory.
28.9.8 Emergency Escape  Emergency escape--- What to do if Emacs stops responding.
28.9.9 Help for Total Frustration  When you are at your wits' end.

Reporting Bugs

28.10.1 When Is There a Bug  Have you really found a bug?
28.10.2 Understanding Bug Reporting  How to report a bug effectively.
28.10.3 Checklist for Bug Reports  Steps to follow for a good bug report.
28.10.4 Sending Patches for GNU Emacs  How to send a patch for GNU Emacs.

Command Line Options and Arguments

A.1 Action Arguments  Arguments to visit files, load libraries, and call functions.
A.2 Initial Options  Arguments that take effect while starting Emacs.
A.3 Command Argument Example  Examples of using command line arguments.
A.4 Resuming Emacs with Arguments  Specifying arguments when you resume a running Emacs.
A.5 Environment Variables  Environment variables that Emacs uses.

A.6 Specifying the Display Name  Changing the default display and using remote login.
A.7 Font Specification Options  Choosing a font for text, under X.
A.8 Window Color Options  Choosing colors, under X.
A.9 Options for Window Geometry  Start-up window size, under X.
A.10 Internal and External Borders  Internal and external borders, under X.
A.11 Frame Titles  Specifying the initial frame's title.
A.12 Icons  Choosing what sort of icon to use, under X.
A.13 X Resources  Advanced use of classes and resources, under X.
A.14 Lucid Menu X Resources  X resources for Lucid menus.
A.15 Motif Menu X Resources  X resources for Motif menus.

Environment Variables

A.5.1 General Variables  Environment variables that all versions of Emacs use.
A.5.2 Miscellaneous Variables  Certain system specific variables.

MS-DOS and Windows 95/98/NT

C.1 Keyboard and Mouse on MS-DOS  Keyboard and mouse usage on MS-DOS.
C.2 Display on MS-DOS  Fonts, frames and display size on MS-DOS.
C.3 File Names on MS-DOS  File-name conventions on MS-DOS.
C.4 Text Files and Binary Files  Text files on MS-DOS use CRLF to separate lines.
C.5 Printing and MS-DOS  How to specify the printer on MS-DOS.
C.7 Subprocesses on MS-DOS  Running subprocesses on MS-DOS.
C.8 Subprocesses on Windows 95 and NT  Running subprocesses on Windows.
C.9 Using the System Menu on Windows  Controlling what the ALT key does.

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