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Emacs is the extensible, customizable, self-documenting real-time display editor. This Info file describes how to edit with Emacs and some of how to customize it; it corresponds to GNU Emacs version 20.7. For information on extending Emacs, see section `' in The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual.
Distribution How to get the latest Emacs distribution. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE The GNU General Public License gives you permission to redistribute GNU Emacs on certain terms; it also explains that there is no warranty. Introduction An introduction to Emacs concepts. Glossary The glossary. B. Emacs 19 Antinews Information about Emacs version 19. C. Emacs and MS-DOS Using Emacs on MS-DOS (otherwise known as "MS-DOG"). The GNU Manifesto What's GNU? Gnu's Not Unix! D. Acknowledgments Major contributors to GNU Emacs.
Indexes (nodes containing large menus)
Key (Character) Index An item for each standard Emacs key sequence. Command and Function Index An item for each command name. Variable Index An item for each documented variable. Concept Index An item for each concept.
Important General Concepts
1. The Organization of the Screen How to interpret what you see on the screen. 1.5 Kinds of User Input Kinds of input events (characters, buttons, function keys). 1.6 Keys Key sequences: what you type to request one editing action. 1.7 Keys and Commands Named functions run by key sequences to do editing. 1.8 Character Set for Text Character set for text (the contents of buffers and strings). 2. Entering and Exiting Emacs Starting Emacs from the shell. 2.1 Exiting Emacs Stopping or killing Emacs. A. Command Line Arguments Hairy startup options.
Fundamental Editing Commands
3. Basic Editing Commands The most basic editing commands. 4. The Minibuffer Entering arguments that are prompted for. 5. Running Commands by Name Invoking commands by their names. 6. Help Commands for asking Emacs about its commands.
Important Text-Changing Commands
7. The Mark and the Region The mark: how to delimit a "region" of text. 7.7 Deletion and Killing Killing text. 7.8 Yanking Recovering killed text. Moving text. 7.9 Accumulating Text Other ways of copying text. 7.10 Rectangles Operating on the text inside a rectangle on the screen. 8. Registers Saving a text string or a location in the buffer. 9. Controlling the Display Controlling what text is displayed. 10. Searching and Replacement Finding or replacing occurrences of a string. 11. Commands for Fixing Typos Commands especially useful for fixing typos.
Major Structures of Emacs
12. File Handling All about handling files. 13. Using Multiple Buffers Multiple buffers; editing several files at once. 14. Multiple Windows Viewing two pieces of text at once. 15. Frames and X Windows Running the same Emacs session in multiple X windows. 16. International Character Set Support Using non-ASCII character sets (the MULE features).
"within the command". This is called a
17. Major Modes Text mode vs. Lisp mode vs. C mode ... 18. Indentation Editing the white space at the beginnings of lines. 19. Commands for Human Languages Commands and modes for editing English. 20. Editing Programs Commands and modes for editing programs. 21. Compiling and Testing Programs Compiling, running and debugging programs. 22. Abbrevs How to define text abbreviations to reduce the number of characters you must type. 23. Editing Pictures Editing pictures made up of characters using the quarter-plane screen model. 24. Sending Mail Sending mail in Emacs. 25. Reading Mail with Rmail Reading mail in Emacs. 26. Dired, the Directory Editor You can "edit" a directory to manage files in it. 27. The Calendar and the Diary The calendar and diary facilities. 27.13 Gnus How to read netnews with Emacs. 27.14 Running Shell Commands from Emacs Executing shell commands from Emacs. 27.15 Using Emacs as a Server Using Emacs as an editing server for 27.16 Hardcopy Output Printing buffers or regions. 27.17 Postscript Hardcopy Printing buffers or regions as Postscript. 27.18 Variables for Postscript Hardcopy Customizing the Postscript printing commands. 27.19 Sorting Text Sorting lines, paragraphs or pages within Emacs. 27.20 Narrowing Restricting display and editing to a portion of the buffer. 27.21 Two-Column Editing Splitting apart columns to edit them in side-by-side windows. 27.22 Editing Binary Files Using Hexl mode to edit binary files. 27.23 Saving Emacs Sessions Saving Emacs state from one session to the next. 27.24 Recursive Editing Levels A command can allow you to do editing
`recursive editing level'.
27.25 Emulation Emulating some other editors with Emacs. 27.26 Dissociated Press Dissociating text for fun. 27.27 Other Amusements Various games and hacks. 28. Customization Modifying the behavior of Emacs.
Recovery from Problems
28.8 Quitting and Aborting Quitting and aborting. 28.9 Dealing with Emacs Trouble What to do if Emacs is hung or malfunctioning. 28.10 Reporting Bugs How and when to report a bug. 28.11 Contributing to Emacs Development How to contribute improvements to Emacs. 28.12 How To Get Help with GNU Emacs How to get help for your own Emacs needs.
Here are some other nodes which are really inferiors of the ones
already listed, mentioned here so you can get to them in one step:
-- The Detailed Node Listing ---
The Organization of the Screen
1.1 Point The place in the text where editing commands operate. 1.2 The Echo Area Short messages appear at the bottom of the screen. 1.3 The Mode Line Interpreting the mode line. 1.4 The Menu Bar How to use the menu bar.
Basic Editing Commands
3.1 Inserting Text Inserting text by simply typing it. 3.2 Changing the Location of Point How to move the cursor to the place where you want to change something. 3.3 Erasing Text Deleting and killing text. 3.4 Undoing Changes Undoing recent changes in the text. 3.5 Files Visiting, creating, and saving files. 3.6 Help Asking what a character does. 3.7 Blank Lines Commands to make or delete blank lines. 3.8 Continuation Lines Lines too wide for the screen. 3.9 Cursor Position Information What page, line, row, or column is point on? 3.10 Numeric Arguments Numeric arguments for repeating a command.
4.1 Minibuffers for File Names Entering file names with the minibuffer. 4.2 Editing in the Minibuffer How to edit in the minibuffer. 4.3 Completion An abbreviation facility for minibuffer input. 4.4 Minibuffer History Reusing recent minibuffer arguments. 4.5 Repeating Minibuffer Commands Re-executing commands that used the minibuffer.
6.1 Help Summary Brief list of all Help commands. 6.2 Documentation for a Key Asking what a key does in Emacs. 6.3 Help by Command or Variable Name Asking about a command, variable or function name. 6.4 Apropos Asking what pertains to a given topic. 6.5 Keyword Search for Lisp Libraries Finding Lisp libraries by keywords (topics). 6.6 Help for International Language Support Help relating to international language support. 6.8 Other Help Commands Other help commands.
The Mark and the Region
7.1 Setting the Mark Commands to set the mark. 7.2 Transient Mark Mode How to make Emacs highlight the region-- when there is one. 7.3 Operating on the Region Summary of ways to operate on contents of the region. 7.4 Commands to Mark Textual Objects Commands to put region around textual units. 7.5 The Mark Ring Previous mark positions saved so you can go back there. 7.6 The Global Mark Ring Previous mark positions in various buffers.
Deletion and Killing
7.7.1 Deletion Commands for deleting small amounts of text and blank areas. 7.7.2 Killing by Lines How to kill entire lines of text at one time. 7.7.3 Other Kill Commands Commands to kill large regions of text and syntactic units such as words and sentences.
7.8.1 The Kill Ring Where killed text is stored. Basic yanking. 7.8.2 Appending Kills Several kills in a row all yank together. 7.8.3 Yanking Earlier Kills Yanking something killed some time ago.
8.1 Saving Positions in Registers Saving positions in registers. 8.2 Saving Text in Registers Saving text in registers. 8.3 Saving Rectangles in Registers Saving rectangles in registers. 8.4 Saving Window Configurations in Registers Saving window configurations in registers. 8.6 Keeping File Names in Registers File names in registers. 8.7 Bookmarks Bookmarks are like registers, but persistent.
Controlling the Display
9.1 Scrolling Moving text up and down in a window. 9.2 Horizontal Scrolling Moving text left and right in a window. 9.3 Follow Mode Follow mode lets two windows scroll as one. 9.4 Selective Display Hiding lines with lots of indentation. 9.5 Optional Mode Line Features Optional mode line display features. 9.6 How Text Is Displayed How text is normally displayed. 9.7 Variables Controlling Display Information on variables for customizing display.
Searching and Replacement
10.1 Incremental Search Search happens as you type the string. 10.2 Nonincremental Search Specify entire string and then search. 10.3 Word Search Search for sequence of words. 10.4 Regular Expression Search Search for match for a regexp. 10.5 Syntax of Regular Expressions Syntax of regular expressions. 10.6 Searching and Case To ignore case while searching, or not. 10.7 Replacement Commands Search, and replace some or all matches. 10.8 Other Search-and-Loop Commands Operating on all matches for some regexp.
10.7.1 Unconditional Replacement Replacing all matches for a string. 10.7.2 Regexp Replacement Replacing all matches for a regexp. 10.7.3 Replace Commands and Case How replacements preserve case of letters. 10.7.4 Query Replace How to use querying.
Commands for Fixing Typos
11.1 Killing Your Mistakes Commands to kill a batch of recently entered text. 11.2 Transposing Text Exchanging two characters, words, lines, lists... 11.3 Case Conversion Correcting case of last word entered. 11.4 Checking and Correcting Spelling Apply spelling checker to a word or a whole buffer.
12.1 File Names How to type and edit file-name arguments. 12.2 Visiting Files Visiting a file prepares Emacs to edit the file. 12.3 Saving Files Saving makes your changes permanent. 12.4 Reverting a Buffer Reverting cancels all the changes not saved. 12.5 Auto-Saving: Protection Against Disasters Auto Save periodically protects against loss of data. 12.6 File Name Aliases Handling multiple names for one file. 12.7 Version Control Version control systems (RCS, CVS and SCCS). 12.8 File Directories Creating, deleting, and listing file directories. 12.9 Comparing Files Finding where two files differ. 12.10 Miscellaneous File Operations Other things you can do on files. 12.11 Accessing Compressed Files Accessing compressed files. 12.12 Remote Files Accessing files on other sites. 12.13 Quoted File Names Quoting special characters in file names.
12.3.1 Backup Files How Emacs saves the old version of your file. 12.3.2 Protection against Simultaneous Editing How Emacs protects against simultaneous editing of one file by two users.
12.7.1 Introduction to Version Control How version control works in general. 12.7.2 Version Control and the Mode Line How the mode line shows version control status. 12.7.3 Basic Editing under Version Control How to edit a file under version control. 12.7.4 Examining And Comparing Old Versions Examining and comparing old versions. 12.7.5 The Secondary Commands of VC The commands used a little less frequently. 12.7.6 Multiple Branches of a File Multiple lines of development. 12.7.7 Snapshots Sets of file versions treated as a unit. 12.7.8 Miscellaneous Commands and Features of VC Various other commands and features of VC. 12.7.9 Customizing VC Variables that change VC's behavior.
Using Multiple Buffers
13.1 Creating and Selecting Buffers Creating a new buffer or reselecting an old one. 13.2 Listing Existing Buffers Getting a list of buffers that exist. 13.3 Miscellaneous Buffer Operations Renaming; changing read-onlyness; copying text. 13.4 Killing Buffers Killing buffers you no longer need. 13.5 Operating on Several Buffers How to go through the list of all buffers and operate variously on several of them. 13.6 Indirect Buffers An indirect buffer shares the text of another buffer.
14.1 Concepts of Emacs Windows Introduction to Emacs windows. 14.2 Splitting Windows New windows are made by splitting existing windows. 14.3 Using Other Windows Moving to another window or doing something to it. 14.4 Displaying in Another Window Finding a file or buffer in another window. 14.5 Forcing Display in the Same Window Forcing certain buffers to appear in the selected window rather than in another window. 14.6 Deleting and Rearranging Windows Deleting windows and changing their sizes.
Frames and X Windows
15.1 Mouse Commands for Editing Moving, cutting, and pasting, with the mouse. 15.2 Secondary Selection Cutting without altering point and mark. 15.3 Following References with the Mouse Using the mouse to select an item from a list. 15.4 Mouse Clicks for Menus Mouse clicks that bring up menus. 15.5 Mode Line Mouse Commands Mouse clicks on the mode line. 15.6 Creating Frames Creating additional Emacs frames with various contents. 15.8 Multiple Displays How one Emacs job can talk to several displays. 15.9 Special Buffer Frames You can make certain buffers have their own frames. 15.10 Setting Frame Parameters Changing the colors and other modes of frames. 15.11 Scroll Bars How to enable and disable scroll bars; how to use them. 15.12 Menu Bars Enabling and disabling the menu bar. 15.13 Using Multiple Typefaces How to change the display style using faces. 15.14 Font Lock mode Minor mode for syntactic highlighting using faces. 15.15 Font Lock Support Modes Font Lock support modes make Font Lock faster. 15.17 Miscellaneous X Window Features Iconifying and deleting frames. Region highlighting. 15.18 Non-Window Terminals Multiple frames on terminals that show only one.
Font Lock Support Modes
15.15.1 Fast Lock Mode Saving font information in files. 15.15.2 Lazy Lock Mode Fontifying only text that is actually displayed. 15.15.3 Fast Lock or Lazy Lock? Which support mode is best for you?
International Character Set Support
16.1 Introduction to International Character Sets Basic concepts of multibyte characters. 16.2 Enabling Multibyte Characters Controlling whether to use multibyte characters. 16.3 Language Environments Setting things up for the language you use. 16.4 Input Methods Entering text characters not on your keyboard. 16.5 Selecting an Input Method Specifying your choice of input methods. 16.7 Coding Systems Character set conversion when you read and write files, and so on. 16.8 Recognizing Coding Systems How Emacs figures out which conversion to use. 16.9 Specifying a Coding System Various ways to choose which conversion to use. 16.10 Fontsets Fontsets are collections of fonts that cover the whole spectrum of characters. 16.11 Defining fontsets Defining a new fontset. 16.12 Single-byte European Character Support You can pick one European character set to use without multibyte characters.
17.1 How Major Modes are Chosen How major modes are specified or chosen.
18.1 Indentation Commands and Techniques Various commands and techniques for indentation. 18.2 Tab Stops You can set arbitrary "tab stops" and then indent to the next tab stop when you want to. 18.3 Tabs vs. Spaces You can request indentation using just spaces.
Commands for Human Languages
19.1 Words Moving over and killing words. 19.2 Sentences Moving over and killing sentences. 19.3 Paragraphs Moving over paragraphs. 19.4 Pages Moving over pages. 19.5 Filling Text Filling or justifying text. 19.6 Case Conversion Commands Changing the case of text. 19.7 Text Mode The major modes for editing text files. 19.8 Outline Mode Editing outlines. 19.9 TeX Mode Editing input to the formatter TeX. 19.10 Nroff Mode Editing input to the formatter nroff. 19.11 Editing Formatted Text Editing formatted text directly in WYSIWYG fashion.
19.5.1 Auto Fill Mode Auto Fill mode breaks long lines automatically. 19.5.2 Explicit Fill Commands Commands to refill paragraphs and center lines. 19.5.3 The Fill Prefix Filling paragraphs that are indented or in a comment, etc. 19.5.4 Adaptive Filling How Emacs can determine the fill prefix automatically.
20.1 Major Modes for Programming Languages Major modes for editing programs. 20.2 Lists and Sexps Expressions with balanced parentheses. 20.3 List And Sexp Commands The commands for working with list and sexps. 20.4 Defuns Each program is made up of separate functions. There are editing commands to operate on them. 20.5 Indentation for Programs Adjusting indentation to show the nesting. 20.6 Automatic Display Of Matching Parentheses Insertion of a close-delimiter flashes matching open. 20.7 Manipulating Comments Inserting, killing, and aligning comments. 20.8 Editing Without Unbalanced Parentheses Inserting two matching parentheses at once, etc. 20.9 Completion for Symbol Names Completion on symbol names of your program or language. 20.11 Documentation Commands Getting documentation of functions you plan to call. 20.12 Change Logs Maintaining a change history for your program. 20.13 Tags Tables Go directly to any function in your program in one command. Tags remembers which file it is in. 20.14 Merging Files with Emerge A convenient way of merging two versions of a program. 20.15 C and Related Modes Special commands of C, C++, Objective-C and Java modes. 20.16 Fortran Mode Fortran mode and its special features. 20.17 Asm Mode Asm mode and its special features.
Indentation for Programs
20.5.1 Basic Program Indentation Commands Indenting a single line. 20.5.2 Indenting Several Lines Commands to reindent many lines at once. 20.5.3 Customizing Lisp Indentation Specifying how each Lisp function should be indented. 20.5.4 Commands for C Indentation Choosing an indentation style for C code.
20.13.1 Source File Tag Syntax Tag syntax for various types of code and text files. 20.13.2 Creating Tags Tables Creating a tags table with
20.13.3 Selecting a Tags Table How to visit a tags table. 20.13.4 Finding a Tag Commands to find the definition of a specific tag. 20.13.5 Searching and Replacing with Tags Tables Using a tags table for searching and replacing. 20.13.6 Tags Table Inquiries Listing and finding tags defined in a file.
Merging Files with Emerge
20.14.1 Overview of Emerge How to start Emerge. Basic concepts. 20.14.2 Submodes of Emerge Fast mode vs. Edit mode. Skip Prefers mode and Auto Advance mode. 20.14.3 State of a Difference You do the merge by specifying state A or B for each difference. 20.14.4 Merge Commands Commands for selecting a difference, changing states of differences, etc. 20.14.5 Exiting Emerge What to do when you've finished the merge. 20.14.6 Combining the Two Versions How to keep both alternatives for a difference. 20.14.7 Fine Points of Emerge Misc.
Compiling and Testing Programs
21.1 Running Compilations under Emacs Compiling programs in languages other than Lisp (C, Pascal, etc.). 21.3 Compilation Mode The mode for visiting compiler errors. 21.4 Subshells for Compilation Customizing your shell properly for use in the compilation buffer. 21.5 Running Debuggers Under Emacs Running symbolic debuggers for non-Lisp programs. 21.6 Executing Lisp Expressions Various modes for editing Lisp programs, with different facilities for running the Lisp programs. 21.7 Libraries of Lisp Code for Emacs Creating Lisp programs to run in Emacs. 21.9 Lisp Interaction Buffers Executing Lisp in an Emacs buffer. 21.8 Evaluating Emacs-Lisp Expressions Executing a single Lisp expression in Emacs. 21.10 Running an External Lisp Communicating through Emacs with a separate Lisp.
Running Debuggers Under Emacs
21.5.1 Starting GUD How to start a debugger subprocess. 21.5.2 Debugger Operation Connection between the debugger and source buffers. 21.5.3 Commands of GUD Key bindings for common commands. 21.5.4 GUD Customization Defining your own commands for GUD.
22.1 Abbrev Concepts Fundamentals of defined abbrevs. 22.2 Defining Abbrevs Defining an abbrev, so it will expand when typed. 22.3 Controlling Abbrev Expansion Controlling expansion: prefixes, canceling expansion. 22.4 Examining and Editing Abbrevs Viewing or editing the entire list of defined abbrevs. 22.5 Saving Abbrevs Saving the entire list of abbrevs for another session. 22.6 Dynamic Abbrev Expansion Abbreviations for words already in the buffer.
23.1 Basic Editing in Picture Mode Basic concepts and simple commands of Picture Mode. 23.2 Controlling Motion after Insert Controlling direction of cursor motion after "self-inserting" characters. 23.3 Picture Mode Tabs Various features for tab stops and indentation. 23.4 Picture Mode Rectangle Commands Clearing and superimposing rectangles.
24.1 The Format of the Mail Buffer Format of the mail being composed. 24.2 Mail Header Fields Details of permitted mail header fields. 24.3 Mail Aliases Abbreviating and grouping mail addresses. 24.4 Mail Mode Special commands for editing mail being composed. 24.5 Distracting the NSA How to distract the NSA's attention. 24.6 Mail-Composition Methods Using alternative mail-composition methods.
Reading Mail with Rmail
25.1 Basic Concepts of Rmail Basic concepts of Rmail, and simple use. 25.2 Scrolling Within a Message Scrolling through a message. 25.3 Moving Among Messages Moving to another message. 25.4 Deleting Messages Deleting and expunging messages. 25.5 Rmail Files and Inboxes How mail gets into the Rmail file. 25.6 Multiple Rmail Files Using multiple Rmail files. 25.7 Copying Messages Out to Files Copying message out to files. 25.8 Labels Classifying messages by labeling them. 25.9 Rmail Attributes Certain standard labels, called attributes. 25.10 Sending Replies Sending replies to messages you are viewing. 25.11 Summaries Summaries show brief info on many messages. 25.12 Sorting the Rmail File Sorting messages in Rmail. 25.13 Display of Messages How Rmail displays a message; customization. 25.14 Editing Within a Message Editing message text and headers in Rmail. 25.15 Digest Messages Extracting the messages from a digest message. 25.16 Converting an Rmail File to Inbox Format Converting an Rmail file to mailbox format. 25.17 Reading Rot13 Messages Reading messages encoded in the rot13 code. 25.18
More details of fetching new mail.
Dired, the Directory Editor
26.1 Entering Dired How to invoke Dired. 26.2 Commands in the Dired Buffer Commands in the Dired buffer. 26.3 Deleting Files with Dired Deleting files with Dired. 26.4 Flagging Many Files at Once Flagging files based on their names. 26.5 Visiting Files in Dired Other file operations through Dired. 26.6 Dired Marks vs. Flags Flagging for deletion vs marking. 26.7 Operating on Files How to copy, rename, print, compress, etc. either one file or several files. 26.8 Shell Commands in Dired Running a shell command on the marked files. 26.9 Transforming File Names in Dired Using patterns to rename multiple files. 26.10 File Comparison with Dired Running `diff' by way of Dired. 26.11 Subdirectories in Dired Adding subdirectories to the Dired buffer. 26.12 Moving Over Subdirectories Moving across subdirectories, and up and down. 26.13 Hiding Subdirectories Making subdirectories visible or invisible. 26.14 Updating the Dired Buffer Discarding lines for files of no interest. 26.15 Dired and
Using `find' to choose the files for Dired.
The Calendar and the Diary
27.1 Movement in the Calendar Moving through the calendar; selecting a date. 27.2 Scrolling in the Calendar Bringing earlier or later months onto the screen. 27.3 Counting Days How many days are there between two dates? 27.4 Miscellaneous Calendar Commands Exiting or recomputing the calendar. 27.5 LaTeX Calendar Print a calendar using LaTeX. 27.6 Holidays Displaying dates of holidays. 27.7 Times of Sunrise and Sunset Displaying local times of sunrise and sunset. 27.8 Phases of the Moon Displaying phases of the moon. 27.9 Conversion To and From Other Calendars Converting dates to other calendar systems. 27.10 The Diary Displaying events from your diary. 27.11 Appointments Reminders when it's time to do something. 27.12 Daylight Savings Time How to specify when daylight savings time is active.
Movement in the Calendar
27.1.1 Motion by Standard Lengths of Time Moving by days, weeks, months, and years. 27.1.2 Beginning or End of Week, Month or Year Moving to start/end of weeks, months, and years. 27.1.3 Specified Dates Moving to the current date or another specific date.
Conversion To and From Other Calendars
(aside from Gregorian).
27.9.1 Supported Calendar Systems The calendars Emacs understands
27.9.2 Converting To Other Calendars Converting the selected date to various calendars. 27.9.3 Converting From Other Calendars Moving to a date specified in another calendar. 27.9.4 Converting from the Mayan Calendar Moving to a date specified in a Mayan calendar.
27.10.1 Commands Displaying Diary Entries Viewing diary entries and associated calendar dates. 27.10.2 The Diary File Entering events in your diary. 27.10.3 Date Formats Various ways you can specify dates. 27.10.4 Commands to Add to the Diary Commands to create diary entries. 27.10.5 Special Diary Entries Anniversaries, blocks of dates, cyclic entries, etc.
27.13.1 Gnus Buffers The group, summary, and article buffers. 27.13.2 When Gnus Starts Up What you should know about starting Gnus. 27.13.3 Summary of Gnus Commands A short description of the basic Gnus commands.
Running Shell Commands from Emacs
27.14.1 Single Shell Commands How to run one shell command and return. 27.14.2 Interactive Inferior Shell Permanent shell taking input via Emacs. 27.14.3 Shell Mode Special Emacs commands used with permanent shell. 27.14.4 Shell Command History Repeating previous commands in a shell buffer. 27.14.5 Shell Mode Options Options for customizing Shell mode. 27.14.6 Remote Host Shell Connecting to another computer.
28.1 Minor Modes Each minor mode is one feature you can turn on independently of any others. 28.2 Variables Many Emacs commands examine Emacs variables to decide what to do; by setting variables, you can control their functioning. 28.3 Keyboard Macros A keyboard macro records a sequence of keystrokes to be replayed with a single command. 28.4 Customizing Key Bindings The keymaps say what command each key runs. By changing them, you can "redefine keys". 28.5 Keyboard Translations If your keyboard passes an undesired code for a key, you can tell Emacs to substitute another code. 28.6 The Syntax Table The syntax table controls how words and expressions are parsed. 28.7 The Init File, `~/.emacs' How to write common customizations in the
28.2.1 Examining and Setting Variables Examining or setting one variable's value. 28.2.2 Easy Customization Interface Convenient and easy customization of variables. 28.2.3 Hooks Hook variables let you specify programs for parts of Emacs to run on particular occasions. 28.2.4 Local Variables Per-buffer values of variables. 28.2.5 Local Variables in Files How files can specify variable values.
28.3.1 Basic Use Defining and running keyboard macros. 28.3.2 Naming and Saving Keyboard Macros Giving keyboard macros names; saving them in files. 28.3.3 Executing Macros with Variations Making keyboard macros do different things each time.
Customizing Key Bindings
28.4.1 Keymaps Generalities. The global keymap. 28.4.2 Prefix Keymaps Keymaps for prefix keys. 28.4.3 Local Keymaps Major and minor modes have their own keymaps. 28.4.4 Minibuffer Keymaps The minibuffer uses its own local keymaps. 28.4.5 Changing Key Bindings Interactively How to redefine one key's meaning conveniently. 28.4.6 Rebinding Keys in Your Init File Rebinding keys with your init file, `.emacs'. 28.4.7 Rebinding Function Keys Rebinding terminal function keys. 28.4.8 Named ASCII Control Characters Distinguishing TAB from C-i, and so on. 28.4.10 Rebinding Mouse Buttons Rebinding mouse buttons in Emacs. 28.4.11 Disabling Commands Disabling a command means confirmation is required before it can be executed. This is done to protect beginners from surprises.
The Init File, `~/.emacs'
28.7.1 Init File Syntax Syntax of constants in Emacs Lisp. 28.7.2 Init File Examples How to do some things with an init file. 28.7.3 Terminal-specific Initialization Each terminal type can have an init file. 28.7.4 How Emacs Finds Your Init File How Emacs finds the init file.
Dealing with Emacs Trouble
28.9.1 If DEL Fails to Delete What to do if DEL doesn't delete. 28.9.2 Recursive Editing Levels `[...]' in mode line around the parentheses. 28.9.3 Garbage on the Screen Garbage on the screen. 28.9.4 Garbage in the Text Garbage in the text. 28.9.5 Spontaneous Entry to Incremental Search Spontaneous entry to incremental search. 28.9.6 Running out of Memory How to cope when you run out of memory. 28.9.8 Emergency Escape Emergency escape--- What to do if Emacs stops responding. 28.9.9 Help for Total Frustration When you are at your wits' end.
28.10.1 When Is There a Bug Have you really found a bug? 28.10.2 Understanding Bug Reporting How to report a bug effectively. 28.10.3 Checklist for Bug Reports Steps to follow for a good bug report. 28.10.4 Sending Patches for GNU Emacs How to send a patch for GNU Emacs.
Command Line Options and Arguments
A.1 Action Arguments Arguments to visit files, load libraries, and call functions. A.2 Initial Options Arguments that take effect while starting Emacs. A.3 Command Argument Example Examples of using command line arguments. A.4 Resuming Emacs with Arguments Specifying arguments when you resume a running Emacs. A.5 Environment Variables Environment variables that Emacs uses.
A.6 Specifying the Display Name Changing the default display and using remote login. A.7 Font Specification Options Choosing a font for text, under X. A.8 Window Color Options Choosing colors, under X. A.9 Options for Window Geometry Start-up window size, under X. A.10 Internal and External Borders Internal and external borders, under X. A.11 Frame Titles Specifying the initial frame's title. A.12 Icons Choosing what sort of icon to use, under X. A.13 X Resources Advanced use of classes and resources, under X. A.14 Lucid Menu X Resources X resources for Lucid menus. A.15 Motif Menu X Resources X resources for Motif menus.
A.5.1 General Variables Environment variables that all versions of Emacs use. A.5.2 Miscellaneous Variables Certain system specific variables.
MS-DOS and Windows 95/98/NT
C.1 Keyboard and Mouse on MS-DOS Keyboard and mouse usage on MS-DOS. C.2 Display on MS-DOS Fonts, frames and display size on MS-DOS. C.3 File Names on MS-DOS File-name conventions on MS-DOS. C.4 Text Files and Binary Files Text files on MS-DOS use CRLF to separate lines. C.5 Printing and MS-DOS How to specify the printer on MS-DOS. C.7 Subprocesses on MS-DOS Running subprocesses on MS-DOS. C.8 Subprocesses on Windows 95 and NT Running subprocesses on Windows. C.9 Using the System Menu on Windows Controlling what the ALT key does.